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:: Volume 21, Issue 5 (11-2019) ::
J Mil Med 2019, 21(5): 468-478 Back to browse issues page
Organophosphate compounds and their biodegradation; using enzymes as an increased efficiency approach
Taleb Badri, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Kazem Hassanpour, Ramezan Ali Taheri, Morteza Mirzaei, Gholamreza Farnoosh *
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , rzfarnoosh@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2225 Views)
Organophosphorus compounds are widely used in pesticides, insecticides in agriculture and as nervous chemical agents. These chemicals inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity that is responsible for the nervous impulse in organisms. This effect leads to an increase in acetylcholine level and finally neuronal complications.
Many methods are used to degrade and decontaminate these compounds, such as: the use of chemicals, burial of toxins, burning and biodegradation. The chemical and physical methods are often toxic, allergic, corrosive and nonspecific and harmful for the environment and are not usable in war spaces. Biodegradation is an effective and safe method that is performed under controlled conditions for the decomposition of various constituents, including organophosphorus compounds, by biological agents. Biodegradation is performed using microbes to detoxify and decompose contaminants. These strains contain broad substrate-degrading enzymes.
Although the use of natural strains as vital catalysts is an interesting method for the treatment of organophosphorus compounds, the inability of organophosphorus compounds to cross the membrane width reduces the total catalytic power, so the use of recombinant enzymes for the decomposition of organophosphorus compounds can be of great help in removing contaminants, especially in war environments. Many enzymes have been identified and used for this purpose, but most notably include: Diisopropyl-fluorophosphatase (DFPasae), Organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) and Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH).
In this review, in addition to describing the organophosphorus compounds and their effects, biodegradation especially by use of enzymes was considered. The understanding and mastering of this knowledge could help researchers in the use of chemical degrading enzymes, especially organophosphates, in spray and enzymatic ointments in military environments.
Keywords: Biodegradation, Acetylcholinesterase, Organophosphorus Compounds, Nervous Chemical Agents, Degradation Enzymes.
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Type of Study: Review | Subject: military medcine
Received: 2019/05/20 | Accepted: 2019/08/30 | Published: 2019/11/1
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Badri T, Latifi A M, Hassanpour K, Taheri R A, Mirzaei M, Farnoosh G. Organophosphate compounds and their biodegradation; using enzymes as an increased efficiency approach. J Mil Med. 2019; 21 (5) :468-478
URL: http://militarymedj.ir/article-1-2227-en.html

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Volume 21, Issue 5 (11-2019) Back to browse issues page
مجله طب‌نظامی Journal Mil Med
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